Friday 24 September 2021

Footnotes vs Endnotes: What’s the Difference?

In different papers, we have seen a small number as a superscript at the end of the sentence. This number may refer to the bottom of the page (footnotes), or the end of the document (endnotes). Footnotes/endnotes give a reference to the source of the statement. Sometimes, it is not possible or necessary to add all information about the statement. The author uses notes to provide links to the information for interested people. The author uses them to provide bibliographical. Extra details about the topic are also provided through these. These notes are helpful in understanding the context or concept of the statement. In scholastic work, usage of footnotes is preferred more. This is due to their quick access to reference. According to experts of a PhD dissertation writing service, there is no hard and fast rule for selecting a style of notes. It all depends on the will and preference of the author.

Defining Footnotes and Endnotes

Defining Footnotes and Endnotes

It's important to define them so that the reader can understand what they mean;


It relates to citing a reference or adding a comment at the bottom. Specifically, direction about certain information given above. Footnotes highlight the source and give directions as well about the detailed information. Footnotes are mentioned through consecutive numbers in the complete paper. The superscript numbers of footnotes are placed at the end of statements. Most writing styles don’t allow footnotes’ usage within the document. They consider footnotes as an outdated referencing style. They show their concerns regarding cluttering of the pages.


It is the reference or comment located at the end of the paper or chapter. Endnote directs the reader to the actual source of the statement. Endnotes are arranged or cited according to the style of writing and used in a class. They cover the source that provides brief information about the context. Endnotes may be available at the end of a chapter or the book. Publishers and authors prefer endnotes over footnotes. This is because endnotes don't create distraction for the readers. It also fulfills the need for the source of difficult concepts.

Key differences between footnotes and endnotes are highlighted as follows; 



Footnotes appear at the bottom of the page.


Endnotes appear at the end of the document.


Footnotes are used as a tool for abridged in-text citation.

Endnote contains detailed information about the reference.

Due to the appearance in every page, it can disturb the reader.


Endnotes appear at the end of a document to avoid disturbance for the reader.


Footnotes provide detailed information of the text.


Endnotes provide a citation of the sources.


Footnotes give a reference to the auxiliary piece of information.


Endnotes provide note about a specific statement at the end of the paper or book.



Footnotes and endnotes have different applications in relation to the various journals and styles. Many journals provide guidelines about the format of a reference. Moreover, there are standard styles that don't allow their usage. MLA restricts you to use a limited amount of footnotes. MLA prefers to use parenthetical citations instead. Chicago format always welcomes the use of footnotes and endnotes. In contrast, APA doesn't allow the use of footnotes and endnotes. APA gives preference to the use of parenthetical citations. AMA doesn’t allow the use of footnotes either. AMA allows using footnotes on the title page of a document.

It is important to understand the pros and cons of using both footnotes and endnotes. These are highlighted as follows;

Advantages of Footnotes:

  • writing advantages
    It saves time by providing an immediate link to the source for the reader. The reader doesn't need to waste time by referring to the list of notes. The reader learns related concepts or context in real-time. The reader may not miss the information because of the fear of exhaustion.
  • The reader can find relevant information on the same page without distraction. A lengthy list of notes may distract the concentration of the reader.
  • Printers also print footnotes that are helpful while studying from the hard copy. You may not take a separate copy of the notes to take reference of the concept.

Disadvantages of Footnotes:

  • Footnotes clutter the page which may cause disturbance for the reader. The good ambiance of a page attracts the reader. A long list of footnotes causes a loss of interest.
  • A large amount of information on footnotes can also cause distraction for the reader.
  • Geographical data on the page may cause the loss of short footnotes.

Advantages of Endnotes:

  • Endnotes don’t distract the reader as they are available at the end of the paper.
  • Endnotes help the reader in accessing all notes through one area.
  • Due to their position, endnotes don't clutter the page. The reader doesn't feel distracted because of the extra information on the page.

Disadvantages of Endnotes:

  • Endnotes demand more time and energy from the reader. It takes more time in referring to the lengthy list and finding the respected one.
  • Stacks of references from different chapters may confuse the reader. This confusion may also lead the reader to the wrong reference.
  • Endnotes contain a source that may include negative content for the reader. Due to this, readers become cautious in terms of visiting the source. This may also exclude the importance of the endnotes in a document.


writing advantages 1
According to expert PhD dissertation writers, both footnotes and endnotes have significant importance for citing the context. Although there are many similarities, they still have many differences as well. Footnotes provide brief information about the text. Whereas endnotes provide the source of citation for the document. They may differ from one another because of the position or detail shared in them. Many writing styles don’t consider them important. While others highlight their importance within the documents. Footnotes and endnotes both have their own advantages and disadvantages. Footnotes provide immediate access to the concepts. It saves time for the reader and retains their concentration as well. Moreover, a large number of footnotes may clutter the page and also distract the reader. Endnotes may not cause distraction for the reader. It doesn’t affect the ambiance of the page and concentration of the reader. Endnotes take more time to find comparatively. Irrespective of their advantages and disadvantages, both are effective tools for conducting research. Researchers prefer endnotes over footnotes, as they can use them according to their convenience.

Saturday 18 September 2021

Top 5 Online Business Schools


Nowadays students prefer to study in high-ranked institutes. It is good for their educational exposure. High-ranked institutes provide good education and learning environment. The QS ranking provides a detailed overview of these institutes. It provides a list of the top 1000 institutes in the world. The latest QS ranking published is in 2021. This list consists of more than 500 business and technology institutes. This ranking is being based on reputation of students and the institute. The publications done by scholars are also included in this. The quality of research and scientists are being based on the H index. QS ranking system evaluated 55,000 institutes and provided the top 1000 ones that are best. The year 2021 marks the entry of 47 new institutes to the list.

If you wish to join a business institute with high ranking and education facilities, you can select one from here.

Here is the list and salient features of the top 5 business schools among top 1000 institutes. This is an attempt to provide a most comprehensive list of the institutes.

1. Harvard University

Business Schools
Harvard University is in Cambridge, United States, 5th on the international ranking. In business schools ranking, it is on top of the list. This is a private sector university facility with high research output. The Student-Faculty ratio is 5, which illustrates a high learning environment. This institute contains 5,877 international students studying in different business domains. Several teachers, around 465, guide the students to excel in their dreams. The University of Harvard offers on-campus and online classes. An assignment help firm said a student can choose the type of study that suits him/her. The enrolment rate is 30 students completing in 1 to 2 years of college. This institute is one of the most well-reputed institutions of the United States. It offers a healthy environment, learning attitude, and resources to the students. The output of the students and teachers is productive.


INSEAD Business School of the World is 2nd in subject ranking of the business. The international ranking of INSEAD is 94 located in France. It offers bachelor's, master's, and executive programs in business. Students from all over the world join the institute every year. The aim of the institution is to work together for mutual gains. It provides many degree programs. The bachelor's and master's programs are the ones in which most students get enrolled. The executive, business foundation certificates, and doctoral programs are also available. It is also a private sector institute with high research output. It is the largest graduate business school bringing people together. People from diverse cultures and regions for the world transform lives. It has established three campuses in Asia, Europe, and the Middle East. It is also located in Singapore, France, Abu Dhabi respectively. It contains 148 faculty members from 40 different countries. Each faculty member is inspiring more than 1300 master's students. This can be an option if you want to target learning output.

3. London Business School

London Business School is a public sector institute, in the United Kingdom. It placed 3rd on the business subject ranking and 93rd on the world QS rankings. It has a very high research output with a 17 faculty-student ratio and 106 faculty members. It has enrolled 1673 students and provides scholarship aids to the students as well. This institute offers MSC, MBA as well as EMBA programs under subject categories. It is offering accounting, finance, management, economics, marketing, entrepreneurship, and organizational behavior. The students that studied at the London School of Business are highly employed. Within three months of graduation, 94% of students get employment. Amongst them, 50% are hired at different indigenous firms in the UK. While 27% within the European industry. If you wish to study on scholarship you can apply for different scholarship programs. It is offering masters in management, Global business, financial help, and entrepreneurship scholarships. The national culture is diverse on campus. It contains various ethnicities and religious students studying together. It builds a dense culture display with coordination and harmony for mutual learning.

4. Massachusetts Institute of Technology

Massachusetts Institute of Technology, is located in Cambridge United States. It offers various, subject categories to the students under graduation and master's programs. The world ranking of the Massachusetts institute is 1. Yet their subject ranking is 4 in business and management. It is a private sector university with high research output. The faculty-student ratio is 4, with 3065 faculty members and 3730 students enrolled. It offers international students and national students equal scholarship plans. The scholarships are being financed under diverse educational options. The programs are being offered in management, marketing, business, entrepreneurship, and economics areas. The international students are being enrolled.

5. Stanford Business University

Business Schools 1
Stanford is a high-quality business institute located in the United States. It is 3rd in the world QS ranking and 5th in the business subject ranking. It is a private sector university with high research output. The student-faculty ratio is 3 to 4725 faculty members. Almost 3879 students are enrolled in the university. It offers many on-campus and online programs. The programs are under bachelor's, master's, Ph.D., executive education, and MBA programs. Students are free to choose from the courses. The issues of financial support are also provided with financial aid scholarships. It will help them continue their endeavors.


The QS ranking established 5 institutes being provided. The top schools have different business programs. The law essay writing service firm said that they provide basic bachelors, masters and doctoral programs in business. All of the institutes have high credibility with high research output. These institutes offer many online and on-campus programs. The admission criteria of the universities is simple. The screening and selection process is tough. The employment rate and education credibility have increased through many markers. Most of these institutes are located in the United States and Europe. These institutes offer many subdomains like economics, entrepreneurship, marketing, advertisement, and research. Financial aid is also available for the students wanting to study. The institutions provide financial and academic assistance. The bachelors, masters and doctoral programs are present. Student can choose from the diverse options.

Friday 10 September 2021

What Is Data Acquisition? A Detailed Overview

Data Acquisition

Data acquisition can be defined as the process of sampling signals that measure real-world physical conditions and convert the resulting samples into digital numeric values that can be manipulated by a computer or software. Data acquisition systems, abbreviated by the initialisms DAS, DAQ, or DAU, typically convert analog waveforms into digital values for processing.

The Components Of Data Acquisition Systems Include:

  • Sensors - they convert physical parameters to electrical signals.
  • Signal conditioning circuitry - that converts sensor signals into a form that can be converted to digital values.
  • Analog-to-digital converters that - convert conditioned sensor signals to digital values

The data acquisition process has two different approaches. One is the traditional approach that uses external sensors such as cameras or other monitoring devices. The other one is the newly introduced approach which uses wearable wireless sensors.

The CEO of dissertation writing services firm said that data acquisition applications are usually controlled by software programs developed using various general-purpose programming languages such as Assembly, BASIC, C, C++, C#, Fortran, Java, LabVIEW, Lisp, Pascal, etc. Stand-alone data acquisition systems are often called data loggers.

Data Acquisition is accepted to be distinct from earlier forms of recording to tape recorders or paper charts. The signals are converted from the analog domain to the digital domain and then recorded to a digital medium such as ROM, flash media, or hard disk drives.

Components Of The Data Acquisition System

Modern digital data acquisition systems consist of four essential components that form the entire measurement chain of physics phenomena. They include:

  • Sensors
  • Signal Conditioning
  • Analog-to-Digital Converter
  • Computer with DAQ software for signal logging and analysis
How does a data acquisition system work?

Data Acquisition System Works By Measuring Physical Phenomena Such As:

  • Temperature
  • Voltage
  • Current
  • Strain and pressure
  • Shock and vibration
  • Distance and displacement
  • RPM, angle, and discrete events
  • Weight
It is important to note that several other variables can be measured by the data acquisition system. They include:
  • Light and images
  • Sound
  • Mass
  • Position
  • Speed

Purposes of Data Acquisition

The main idea behind using a data acquisition system is to acquire and store the data. At the same time, these systems also intend to provide real-time and post-recording visualization and analysis of the data. In addition to this, most data acquisition systems have some analytical and report generation capability built-in that helps them gather the most accurate data as it occurs.

The most recent development in this field is the combination of data acquisition and control, where a high-quality DAQ system is connected tightly and synchronized with a real-time control system.

Engineers in different applications have various requirements depending on their field of work and the data it requires, but these key capabilities are present in varying proportion:

  • Data recording
  • Data storing
  • Real-time data visualization
  • Post-recording data review
  • Data analysis using various mathematical and statistical calculations
  • Report generation

The good thing about data acquisition instruments is that they can be most effectively used for monitoring applications too. They can be used for:
Monitoring the condition of complex machinery such as generators, motors, fans, etc.
Monitoring structural properties of buildings such as bridges, stadiums, etc.
Monitoring energy consumption and energy efficiency in the production process

What Makes Data Acquisition Systems so Important?

Data acquisition systems or devices play a very significant role in the testing of products. They can be anything, from automobiles to medical devices or industrial equipment. It could be any electromechanical device that people use.

Before data acquisition, products were tested in an unstructured, highly subjective manner. When testing a new suspension in an automobile, engineers often relied on the opinions of test drivers as to how the suspension “felt” to them as there was no other way to determine its efficiency.

As the data acquisition systems continue to develop and evolve, they can collect data from a wide variety of sensors. They help to collect data from a wide variety of sensors, and these types of subjective opinions were replaced with objective measurements. These could easily be repeated, compared, analyzed mathematically, and visualized in many ways.

Also Read This: Can You Get Caught Buying an Essay Online?

The Measurement Process

Data acquisition can be rightly called the process of converting real-world signals to the digital domain for display, storage, and analysis. As the physical phenomena exist in the analog domain, i.e., the physical world that we live in, they must be first measured there and then converted to the digital domain.

This process is carried out using a variety of sensors and signal conditioners. The outputs are sampled by analog-to-digital converters (ADCs) and then written in a time-based stream to a digital memory media, as mentioned above. Such systems are known as measurement systems.

Data acquisition sensors to measure another physical phenomenon
Many types of sensors have been invented to measure another physical phenomenon. They include:

  • Load cells that are used for measuring weight and load
  • LVDT sensors that help to measure displacement in distance
  • Accelerometers that are used for measuring vibration and shock
  • Microphones that measure sound
  • Strain gauges for measuring strain on an object, e.g. measure force, pressure, tension, weight, etc.
  • Current transducers for measuring AC or DC
The director of the dissertation proposal writing service company said that depending on the type of sensor, its electrical output can be a voltage, current, resistance, or another electrical attribute that can change or modify over time. The output of these analog sensors is usually connected to the input of a signal conditioner.

Data acquisition has become easy and effective as the systems used for acquiring data make use of a solid-state hard disk drive to stream data from the ADC subsystem to permanent storage. After it has been stored in the DAQ system, the data can also be analyzed using tools, either built into the DAQ system or third-party data analysis software. It makes it easy for the researchers to analyze the data after the test is completed.

Also, with the help of modern technology, the flexible DAQ systems allow the users to configure one or more displays freely, efficiently using the built-in graphical widgets. These days nearly every DAQ system on the market today offers several built-in data export filters that convert the system’s proprietary data format to third-party data formats for offline analysis.

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