Showing posts with label Writing Style. Show all posts
Showing posts with label Writing Style. Show all posts

Friday 24 September 2021

Footnotes vs Endnotes: What’s the Difference?

In different papers, we have seen a small number as a superscript at the end of the sentence. This number may refer to the bottom of the page (footnotes), or the end of the document (endnotes). Footnotes/endnotes give a reference to the source of the statement. Sometimes, it is not possible or necessary to add all information about the statement. The author uses notes to provide links to the information for interested people. The author uses them to provide bibliographical. Extra details about the topic are also provided through these. These notes are helpful in understanding the context or concept of the statement. In scholastic work, usage of footnotes is preferred more. This is due to their quick access to reference. According to experts of a PhD dissertation writing service, there is no hard and fast rule for selecting a style of notes. It all depends on the will and preference of the author.

Defining Footnotes and Endnotes

Defining Footnotes and Endnotes

It's important to define them so that the reader can understand what they mean;


It relates to citing a reference or adding a comment at the bottom. Specifically, direction about certain information given above. Footnotes highlight the source and give directions as well about the detailed information. Footnotes are mentioned through consecutive numbers in the complete paper. The superscript numbers of footnotes are placed at the end of statements. Most writing styles don’t allow footnotes’ usage within the document. They consider footnotes as an outdated referencing style. They show their concerns regarding cluttering of the pages.


It is the reference or comment located at the end of the paper or chapter. Endnote directs the reader to the actual source of the statement. Endnotes are arranged or cited according to the style of writing and used in a class. They cover the source that provides brief information about the context. Endnotes may be available at the end of a chapter or the book. Publishers and authors prefer endnotes over footnotes. This is because endnotes don't create distraction for the readers. It also fulfills the need for the source of difficult concepts.

Key differences between footnotes and endnotes are highlighted as follows; 



Footnotes appear at the bottom of the page.


Endnotes appear at the end of the document.


Footnotes are used as a tool for abridged in-text citation.

Endnote contains detailed information about the reference.

Due to the appearance in every page, it can disturb the reader.


Endnotes appear at the end of a document to avoid disturbance for the reader.


Footnotes provide detailed information of the text.


Endnotes provide a citation of the sources.


Footnotes give a reference to the auxiliary piece of information.


Endnotes provide note about a specific statement at the end of the paper or book.



Footnotes and endnotes have different applications in relation to the various journals and styles. Many journals provide guidelines about the format of a reference. Moreover, there are standard styles that don't allow their usage. MLA restricts you to use a limited amount of footnotes. MLA prefers to use parenthetical citations instead. Chicago format always welcomes the use of footnotes and endnotes. In contrast, APA doesn't allow the use of footnotes and endnotes. APA gives preference to the use of parenthetical citations. AMA doesn’t allow the use of footnotes either. AMA allows using footnotes on the title page of a document.

It is important to understand the pros and cons of using both footnotes and endnotes. These are highlighted as follows;

Advantages of Footnotes:

  • writing advantages
    It saves time by providing an immediate link to the source for the reader. The reader doesn't need to waste time by referring to the list of notes. The reader learns related concepts or context in real-time. The reader may not miss the information because of the fear of exhaustion.
  • The reader can find relevant information on the same page without distraction. A lengthy list of notes may distract the concentration of the reader.
  • Printers also print footnotes that are helpful while studying from the hard copy. You may not take a separate copy of the notes to take reference of the concept.

Disadvantages of Footnotes:

  • Footnotes clutter the page which may cause disturbance for the reader. The good ambiance of a page attracts the reader. A long list of footnotes causes a loss of interest.
  • A large amount of information on footnotes can also cause distraction for the reader.
  • Geographical data on the page may cause the loss of short footnotes.

Advantages of Endnotes:

  • Endnotes don’t distract the reader as they are available at the end of the paper.
  • Endnotes help the reader in accessing all notes through one area.
  • Due to their position, endnotes don't clutter the page. The reader doesn't feel distracted because of the extra information on the page.

Disadvantages of Endnotes:

  • Endnotes demand more time and energy from the reader. It takes more time in referring to the lengthy list and finding the respected one.
  • Stacks of references from different chapters may confuse the reader. This confusion may also lead the reader to the wrong reference.
  • Endnotes contain a source that may include negative content for the reader. Due to this, readers become cautious in terms of visiting the source. This may also exclude the importance of the endnotes in a document.


writing advantages 1
According to expert PhD dissertation writers, both footnotes and endnotes have significant importance for citing the context. Although there are many similarities, they still have many differences as well. Footnotes provide brief information about the text. Whereas endnotes provide the source of citation for the document. They may differ from one another because of the position or detail shared in them. Many writing styles don’t consider them important. While others highlight their importance within the documents. Footnotes and endnotes both have their own advantages and disadvantages. Footnotes provide immediate access to the concepts. It saves time for the reader and retains their concentration as well. Moreover, a large number of footnotes may clutter the page and also distract the reader. Endnotes may not cause distraction for the reader. It doesn’t affect the ambiance of the page and concentration of the reader. Endnotes take more time to find comparatively. Irrespective of their advantages and disadvantages, both are effective tools for conducting research. Researchers prefer endnotes over footnotes, as they can use them according to their convenience.

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